zpCUbhkAlqAxZqsAqVw3Z_Q0I18 Sumber Perkongsian Ilmu ©: LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION (comparison between western theory and al-quran and al-sunnah )google0d30047a50102498.html

Sabtu, 21 Disember 2013

LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION (comparison between western theory and al-quran and al-sunnah )


    Asalamuaikum, bertemu kembali didalam arena blogger, huhu kali ini Admin ingin berkongsi dengan andan semua tentang salah satu tajuk yang admin buat untuk tajuk assigment MBA admin, iaitu Leadership in Organization( comparison between western theory and Al-quran and Al-sunah. Assigmen ini didalam bahasa inggeris, so enjoy ye. Admin sengaja buat tajuk ini dengan membuat perbandingan teori barat dan Al-quran supaya Lecture admin tahu teori yang orang barat banggakan tu , sebenarnya ada termaktub didalam Al-quran dan juga hadis nabi s.a.w. Mereka ni sebenarnya copy yang alquran punya.

(comparison between western theory and al-quran and al-sunnah )

              What is leadership? What is deference between leaders and managers? This question is often volatile in our mind. Leaders and leadership is a matter of daily life in society, organizational or work, nation and state. Progress and setbacks of life, organization, effort, people and country, among others influenced by its leaders. Therefore a number of theories about leaders and leadership already springing up and growing. In my assignment I will compare the theories in the west and Islam as a comparison of the leader should have in an organization to lead the organization, and also how to face the challenges of the future. Leadership is a leader who was leading a group of people with their influence and carries out the responsibility set out in an organization to achieve goal. According to George R.Terry (1960) refers to 'leadership needs to do something that is triggered by the leadership, and desire for achievement turned into a sensual power (burning passion) to achieve what you want by using leadership skills'. It includes the line leader subordinate leaders or supervisors. Every organization needs leaders who can truly lead their subordinates. Leadership occurs when someone is inducing, persuading, and influencing others to work towards the achievement of organizational goals. It also comprises of behavior interactions with colleagues, subordinates workers, bosses, clients and other parties. Arguably, where the existence of an effective manager in an efficient management system, there also are an effective leader. According to Mary Parker Follet Management is an art, art that should be on every leader to make such a wonderful organization and the employee can follow the instructions from their leaders to open conditions, the production of an organization's productivity will increase. There are three important factors about the definition of leadership. First, leadership must involve other people or any other party whether subordinate employees who considers the different circumstances. Leadership through the process of creating their willingness to accept an unbalanced distribution of power between leaders and subordinates. Second, leaders have the full power to give directions with respect to some of the activities of subordinates, while subordinates cannot expect the activities of their leaders. Third, in addition to having the power to give instructions about what to do, leaders can also influence through the instructions executed by the workers-employees.
   Organization means a group or place occupied by a group of people or a person who has an interest or in a group, or a group of people with similar interests and come together in a group to achieve a certain goal or similar interests to consolidate towards the achievement the joint objectives. Organizations have human characteristics or the members of the organization, common objectives and structures created by them to achieve this objective. Established structure contains the first level managers (leaders 1) the owner and managing director, second-level managers (leaders 2) HRM, division managers and department heads, the third level (leadership 3) supervisor and labor leader. Managers are leaders in their division with their own subordinates. Below are some in the organization structure of the company or organization.
Diagram 1
                 According the theory X and Y McGregor (1960), if a leader to control and manage subordinates in wrong and have a response that exists in the mind of those included:

Theory X said, the man is lazy and always try to prevent yourself from doing any work and must be forced ordered to perform the task. These people do not have human creativity not ambitious and like run away from reasonability also love directed.
             Theory Y said, that is contradicts express an innermost theory X. Humanity as whole like to work, because it give physically and mantel pleasure. Human have inner drive initiative and internal controls to ensure the success of a job. Commitment to objectives is the impetus for success.
             Based on both theory theory Y is well used by the leaders to lead an organization. Because it makes subordinates or group of people more competitive in achieving the organization's objectives.
   Leadership in the Qur'an mentioned the concept of “Imamah” term, with the term leader priest. The Qur'an relates the guidance and leadership by giving clues to the truth. A leader cannot do wrong and never resorted to violence in all levels of cruelty. The knowledge and acts of cruelty, injustice in taking decisions and applications.
             A leader should know the followers conditions, direct feel their suffering. A leader should be above his people in every way, knowledge and action, devotion and worship, courage and preferences, and the behavior of nature, and others.
         The Qur'an explains that a leader does not deserve the guidance of his people. A leader must be knowledgeable and obtain guidance before his people. Even the Qur'an asserts a leader should receive guidance directly from God, cannot get clues from other people or Muslims.
           Leaders in view of the Qur'an is Allah's choice, not the choice and human consensus as understood and used by Muslims generally footing. Human choices are wide open door to enter the offense and cruelty. In addition, people do not close the possibility of a deal agreed in sin, disobedience and violence. It has many proven throughout human history. But in this case we examine the concept of leadership promised (Prophet Abraham) the accuracy of the Almighty sharp before the time of Prophet Muhammad, we know that the Prophet Abraham is getting a trial from the very sharp weight range, behind it all turns out to Abraham with the completeness get through the ordeal. Which is explained in the Qur'an the Al Baqara verse 124.
 “And (remember) when Abraham tested. Lord, in a few sentences (commands and prohibitions), he fulfilled. He said: "I will make you Imam for mankind”.
(Al-Baqarah: 124)
 Almighty God has given to man to know, about the importance of leadership in Islam, as the Qur'an we find many verses related to leadership problems.
"Remember when your Lord said to the angels:" I will create a vicegerent on earth ". They said: "Why did you want to make (caliph) on earth one who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we always celebrate Thy praise and sanctify Thee?" God said: "I know what ye know not." (Al-Baqarah: 30)       
         This verse indicates that the Caliph (leader) holds the mandate to develop the trust of Allah and the leadership of heaven on earth. Remember the angel community has protested against the Caliphate man on earth.

          To be a leader in an organization a leader requires some features that are important for an organization to make it more robust and improved productivity. Leadership in Islam, the characteristics of someone's leaders must be given priority for securing an organization that could be done better and also the subordinates can receive more effective instruction.
Leaders in Islam have a number of features, including:        
a. Good faith
b. Male
c. Do not ask the department
d. Hold on and consistent with the law of God
e. Judge fairly
f. Am always there when needed
g. advising people
h. Not accept gifts
i. Finding a good leader
j. gentle
k. No dubious people
l. Open to the ideas and criticism
Among the characteristics of leadership that a leader should have our usual practice is:
a) Honesty and integrity
b) Foresight, vision and put goals
c) Have the skills, knowledge and abilities
d) Providing inspiration
e) Take risks and be responsible
f) Use and train other leaders
g) Lower power
h) Trust and loyalty to the organization
i) Sharing success
j) Has its own ethical standards
k) Have a team spirit
l) Have self-confidence

Diagram 2

          Communication is an important tool in all levels of administration, whether formal or informal. Good communication will make contact would be appreciated. A leader must have good communication skills with subordinates. Without good communication skills and lower level leaders are confused and misunderstanding will occur between the two sides, particularly in decision-making is done. For example, if a manager of interior design has been decided that an invention must be certified and do from the top, so if there is good communication with subordinates, can result in the production of designs to customers with imperfect conditions. Which will result in reduced productivity quality customer points. Implemented effective communication as a whole. This will help to provide a more in-depth explanation on matters related to the organization's policies, labor affairs and organizational planning.
         Communication is also a process of sharing information where information is sent by the sender to the receiver. Communication means transferring information from a sender to a receiver for the purpose of increasing knowledge of the receiver to enable him to perform the duties or alter and influence the behavior and attitudes. Communication will only be successful if the receiver understands the message in line with what’s delivered by the sender.
       Leader in an organization should adopt diversification communication skills including communication from the top down, bottom-up communication and horizontal communication to enhance communication with subordinate’s leadership in their organization. Leaders should also make use of formal communication techniques and informal communication. Leaders should also diversify strategies and communication styles of leadership in the organization, including adopting strategies to understand the vision, mission and objectives of any organization to subordinates.
      In Islam the concept of good and effective communication is dependent on communication ethics accordance with the teachings of Islam. Described in the Quran:
And the blessings of God thou (Muhammad) deal gently with them. Should you be hard -hearted, they would have dispersed from around you,.... "
(Ali Imran: 159)
        According to me, the Prophet is a great communicator, every message he conveyed effectively bound the hearts of his friends, even the hearts of the hostile enemy races. Modest (tawadhu) and say good words ( Qaulan Salaamah ) . Humility is a very noble character, which tawadhu will be reflected from the nature and behavior. In mixing the tawadhu certainly likable, when said properly, to respect older, but the younger ones love. People like this when destined to be a leader, it will appear as a trustworthy leader. GOD said in the Qur'an Surah Furqan which means:
“And the servants of the Most Merciful God are those who walk on the earth in humility and when the ignorant address them, they say the words good.”
 ( Al Furqon : 63 )
               According to western scholars of Fred R. David (1991) Strategic planning is "the art and science of formulating, Implementing and Evaluating a cross-functional Decisions that's achieve enable an organization to its Objectives". It brings a clear understanding of an organization to achieve the objectives set by a decision on strategy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Each strategy has its own strength to achieve this aim. Every leader must plan every possible management. A leader must plan before it can manage, lead or control of his subordinates. Without proper planning the organization's functions cannot be properly translated and organized. Plans are also different at each leader 1, leader 2 and leaders 3, it is based on their position in the hierarchy or organizational chart of each organization. The higher the position was growing and care planning should be there. Proper management plan allows each agenda item to be delivered to subordinates will be more organized. Each organization will benefit from strategic planning management. Valuable planning is carried out systematically and guiding future action organization. Able to identify key goals, new tasks and can repair organization, as a guide to the leaders in decision-making and actions to be taken in a group of subordinates. It also can increase the motivation of subordinates with proper planning. 
        What is the importance of strategic planning?                                              
a) It allows organizations identify strengths and weaknesses in the organization more clearly
b) Allows organizations to design and take appropriate action in line with the effort and want to exploit the strengths and improve the weaknesses
c) Enable the organization to formulate what actions should be taken in line with the efforts that want to exploit the opportunities and threats that exist curb) allows organizations to plan activities in accordance with its importance more clearly and systematically
e) Determine the level of achievement of the organization concerned
f) The program with ease and can be controlled by the organization 
g) Put the organization in a proactive against the impending changes and outside the confines of the organization.
          Muslims often recommend his followers to always do advance planning in every case because Islam is a religion based system and a perfect arrangement. This can be observed through compilation of Islamic system of worship such as prayer, fasting, charity and pilgrimage undertaken based on policies and methods of planning and arranging the perfect (Husnani Hamzah , 2008) . Although Islam does not prescribe a specific theory strategic planning, but Islam has previously run theory strategic plan created by Western scholars In Islam also focused on the mission and vision set in pointing towards land subsidence has been set. for example in prayer , when the congregation according to the faith this is one system by a head . In the Quran there are quoting:
Allah will not change what had of a people until the people change what is in themselves.
( Al - Rad : 13 )
        Usually the leaders who will make a decision. Every decision must be considered in terms of production EFFECTIVENESS productivity of an organization. Every decision made ​​should satisfy both parties either from their own leaders and subordinates. Leader 1 plays an important role in making decisions for the organization, because the rise and fall of an organization is directly dependent on one’s leaders. For example, in the purchase of a tech machines, whether tech machines to be purchased will be able to increase productivity in lower labor costs. Besides this the first leader to decide how EFFECTIVENESS a technology that can effectively to subordinates, and also not detrimental to the organization. Each decision requires the support of subordinates, so that whatever will be done for the future of the organization can be shared with subordinates as well as the decision was accepted by the subordinates. Decisions made by someone managers also determine the fate of the organization. Every leader cannot run away from making a decision whether it is simple or more complex. Should be determined from cutting across various aspects to decide who to make organizational decisions. Leadership theory or approach bore a leadership Styles an attempt to describe the interests of the members in the manufacturing process decision until the results produced by the members of optimal.
            Due to various factors INHERENT on members and on condition organizations , such as the problems of maturity , humanity and efficiency considerations and effectiveness of the implementation of the task , then the member's interest or needs are translated in the form of participation in various types and levels to manufacturing good decision in the sense of effective formulation or implementation decisions. Through the theory of leadership, decision-making process can be translated in the behavior of the leadership and the role of members in the process behavior of the interaction and behavior of members of the leaders in the management process.
people still will apply by subordinates. Among these principles is the principle of
1. Results basically intended to solve the problem, because the    let every right alternative solution to the problems addressed.
2. Every decision let the best alternative to the risk very minimal.
3. Let the results are considered in scope and risk systematic and systemic.
4. Results should not be beyond the zone of human acceptance.
5. Effective decision is a decision that can be implemented.
6. Decision-making consists of the formulation of the decision and implementation of the decision.
7. Let decisions produce a result that can measure  
8. The results do not always have to start from the data, but of judgment.      
     In Islam decided by leaders it call “Musyawarah” Which is explained in the Qur'an
" And by the Mercy is God, thou gentle attitude towards them. Had you been rough and hard exercise. They would stay away from you. Therefore, pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in specific business . Then when thou hast taken a decision, put your trust in God . Surely Allah loves those who put their trust in Him " . (Surah Ali ' Imran : 159 )
          Musyawarah could mean recruiting, training, thrusting themselves, and ask the opinion or advice of , or in general, in other words it means taking the best opinion and to submit an opinion to the opinion of others. The duty of leaders to take decisions based on discussion is a very urgent matter. Because the results of a leader will greatly affect the stability of the region leads. 
      To get success in extraordinary future leaders in the organization must work with his or morally and physically. Cooperation makes subordinates feel appreciated by my superiors; the intricacies of the problem or even something that’s activities can be achieved with the cooperation of the leaders. Policies to be served by leaders more clearly interpreted by subordinates. For example, an understanding of the vision and mission of the organization, the leader should explain more thoroughly and work with their subordinates to the vision
and mission of an organization can be achieved. In addition any leader can monitor the actions of subordinates in the success of the vision and mission of the organization.
     Islam in the same work a good attitude is the attitude of the believer mutual caring, mutual support, mutual launch, does not say others do not fall -dropping, no - harm and loss are not mutually defamatory. Works just as good presuppose also work in the case of an equally good work correctly for the common good. Allah says:
And helping you on the goodness and piety, and not helping the sin and transgression ... (Surah Al Maidah : 2 )                                                                                                          
     Similarly, the good teamwork is important not merely work together, but there is segregation of duties in accordance with their respective areas of expertise. Not give the task to non- members, so expect get optimal results.
      Subordinates often face the same problem - there physically or socially. Physically: the possibility of unskilled subordinates using computer software or tools technology. Leaders who will solve this problem subordinate. For example, a junior Interior unskilled designers using 3D software, How to solve the problem is to send the subordinate short-term courses. All this should be done by the leaders, where the cost of learning how to be solved by the leaders. In social: living facilities for rural area workers or foreign workers need a place to live. Leaders need to search easy way to get home to these workers. This was living facilities are basic facilities for a supplemental workers are migrant workers. Leaders should put full faith and trust in subordinates. A bit much to motivate their subordinates. For example, one leader or owner should be kind enough to provide compensation and benefits commensurate to subordinates.

     The quality of a leader is a creative leader in terms of new ideas to the organization. The level and progress of an organization pyramid shown in the chart below:
         The more creativity a leader increasingly Humanity organization. While the less creative skids a leader of that organization. To make the organization competitive globally. Leaders must have the properties of high creativity. Leaders who have high creativity will be translated to subordinates and increase productivity. For example, a director of a company would be their interior designer-design interior products to market various global level can further expand the company.

           In achieving the goals and direction of whether any organization, leaders need to be proactive in the effectiveness of leadership styles on subordinates. This is important because it is the major difference between a manager and a leader. This is because the leader is a role model for subordinates, but also the outside. Leadership styles is also a power distribution factor by the leader or show of authority over subordinates to accept leaders who highlighted by leaders. Leadership style also divides the style based on how leaders use its authority. One of the well-known techniques that describe the leadership styles dramatically is the administrative parcel created by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. This box is used around the world as a technical and management training to identify various combinations of leadership styles. This technique is based on earlier research research that shows the importance of a manager emphasizes both aspects, the importance of production and workers concerned. I will explain this theory under this section for further explanation
These styles are divided into:
                 This style describes how a leader should communicate or explain to the employee pursuant to directions issued. All duties as directed by the leader should be accompanied by expectations associated with the task. Provided timing and clues on how to do it should be done and should be completed in the detailing of the leader. Early insight and understanding must be communicated to subordinates with more rigorous and detailed. Leaders will also hope that any of their subordinates will comply with the instructions issued. As an example of a leader 1 (diagram 7 ) the managing director of an organization interior designer will instruct managers to complete the design of a project tenders , managing director will explain how it should be done and the calculation of overall budget for the project. Managing director also will share clue how to rather something design the project according to the organization's needs.

             Leaders who have a friendly conversation and caring style refer to the style as well as support-oriented leadership behaviors taking into consideration the employee. To perform tasks with eagerness, a leader must treat their subordinates without mobility based social status and respect their position. This behavior will result in a pleasing situation for subordinates to carry out the task. For example, if organizations are to hire disabled people to carry out tasks in an organization should treat him the same as any other employee. Leaders also should always take care of the problem and ask the case worker or subordinate. Leaders who have full power to perform challenges to their subordinates to perform work at the highest level of their ability. Leaders will always look for improvements and continued performance of their subordinates. Setting a challenge for subordinates or employees to improve performance. This success resulted in the lower profits or workers to get recognition from the leaders. This will increase employee motivation and increase the quality of work and increase organizational productivity tersebut.Ini shown in diagram 8. By Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964) have interpreted and identify leadership styles described in a two-dimensional grid. It is a framework to identify leadership styles and the movement leaders. The grid is shown in diagram below
      Lowest position on the grid once. Blake and Mounton states that this style of a leader only primary emphasis and attention on the task and their subordinates. This style includes a leader not competitive. Not emphasize the objectives and goals of the organization. Most leaders are made ​​up of leaders who will retire from the service. Chances are they frust with their career, there may be no lack of promotion and attention in their duties as leaders. Most people will not lower their obedient. Presenter effectiveness of the organization's goals or cannot be translated by subordinates. (Also called laissez-faire management) managers about the things that concerned employee, or production and minimal roles as leaders and managers. 
        A strong leader in the implementation of the tasks and work management. Fully use its formal powers in directing subordinates in carrying out their duties. Leaders who adopt this style of decision making related to the task, issue instructions and make  sure the direction is followed by their subordinates. Examples of this leadership style can be seen in the manufacturing industry. The manager will issue a directive to achieve the production target to target. This leader will ensure that the target will be achieved by any means including overtime work will be done by their subordinates. STYLE also insist that only the establishment of an efficient operation regardless of employee welfare. By using the four extreme points of this, the management of each technique or style can be placed in this box
This refers to the manager's style will focus on subordinates while the job just given little emphasis. Show more interest to subordinates. More focused leader to be popular among the leaders in the organization. Leaders have a friendly nature of subordinates. Management, we can see in the hospitality field. Most leaders concerned with popularity as more popular someone's hospitality managers greater opportunities for promotion by the top leaders.
      STYLE which also shows managers or not the least concerned about the production, but are very concerned about their employees. What is created is an environment where all employees feel happy and happy without any commitment to the production of united effort to achieve organizational goals.
       Leadership refers to a balance of work and subordinates. Every job is important as well as subordinates. Leaders also a leader of the conservative, status quo. Comfortable with the status quo . For example, there are leaders in the field of industry oversight . This is because every job is important to produce productivity generated by the set target . Supervisors want is achievable targets that have been set . Restoration only done by their senior leaders only. Just directing a subordinate supervisors alone, according to the same rules.
     Moderately concerned about both, the production and staff satisfaction. These managers achieve moral and adequate and satisfactory production but at a level that is not so high , where the establishment of goals and expectations are not very high . Although the management of the parcel is a worthwhile thing to identify and classify the administrative style , but its use is limited hereto, . This is due to the parcel cannot give the reason why a manager is located in a particular part of the parcel . Further investigation of factors such as personal pattern leader. OR followers, ability and training managers and other factors in the situation otherwise, that influence the behavior of tuna both the leaders and followers.
          This style of leadership is the best leadership style. These leaders encourage participation of all subordinates in the organization. Whether in terms of decision making and direction of the organization. Opportunities will be given to subordinates to make decisions together. Subordinates will be more attracted to this kind of leader. This is because of their subordinates will feel appreciated. All instructions will be followed by a sense of freewill. This leader is usually the leader of one director or owner of the company. These leaders want to progress in the organization felt right together by subordinates.
         Also known as the show management team through management activities, there is the highest dedication to enhancing both, the employee and production. Blake and Mouton asserts that this style is the most effective leadership behaviors that improve performance, reduce absenteeism and staff turnover, as well as fostering greater satisfaction. 
         Various sources of leadership influence can affect a leader in an organization. This resource is influenced by the internal state of an organization around. John French and Bertram Raven (1960) define this influence shows power controls his ability to another person by nature a leader has the properties and characteristics of this influence. This signifies they have influence and power. In principle subordinates also know about the influence and the nature and characteristics of a leader.
      Legitimate power refers to the formal appointment of a leader, whether he was a manager elected by the organization or group. Subordinates are solely for leaders that's has determined have a legitimate right to Influence and he has no Obligation to accept the Influence of Reasons that's not have been appointed by the status of the organization. For example, Human Resources Manager has the legal authority to manage the affairs of the employees in terms of facilities and subordinate work setting. Naturally will love every direction complied by the managers and the other employees.
      Reward power refers to how leaders can give rewards and benefits to subordinates. Power is related to the loyalty of subordinates do the job to get in set or not set . For example, bonus rewards, the more the work done by a subordinate employee to be hoped that more and more by the subordinate to reap the rewards. For example, an annual bonus. Party leaders will determine annual bonus 1 to employees if they work hard and assign organization. This force causes them to adhere to earn rewards set by the organization. While the rewards are not set as an example if a sale is produced by a sale and hit the target will be set rewards will not reward holidays for example. This is mostly just reward employees achieve sales target will only be able to. This allows compliant subordinates do the job.
       Coercive power refers to the ability of a leader to impose coercion. Non-compliance to the directions of the leader will result in action or sanctions will be imposed for failure to comply with this directive. Subordinates expect that if the non-compliance to this instruction will be done by the leaders of punishment against them. This condition has been causing subordinates trying to find a way to avoid getting punished. With the way they adhere to these instructions will not be subject to any directions. As an example of those in government departments will obey their leaders as non-compliant commands will cause them to be transferred to remote areas or converted to other departments.
           Power expertise refers to expertise and capabilities possessed by a leader to have, this causes subordinates believe that they have a very experienced leader, knowledge and conceptual skills. Skills and expertise gained from long-term training that they attend. For example, a manager who has a degree in management will be respected and subordinates will abide by these leaders for training and study. This was due to the lower educated just below the leaders. Similarly, for example, a person who has worked with a well-known international companies, causing their expertise recognized by their subordinates. For example a person who has worked as a manager at Microsoft Corp., subordinates will abide by the instructions of their leaders because of the experience and have worked in an international organization.
Various procedures or techniques that should be by a leader affect substantially the subordinates. This technique is important in motivating their subordinates. This allows their subordinates obey every command issued. Sometimes these instructions may be challenged by the subordinate. Thus each an extraordinary leader should have a specific procedure or technique to affect substantially the subordinates. Some of the techniques are:
        Negotiation technique refers to how leaders encourage subordinates to give fruit ideas, methods and ways of doing things to achieve certain objectives set by the organization. This technique is very important to uncover the hidden ideas that are at the bottom. Subordinates may have ideas that could benefit the organization because they are more and more using the procedures and work procedures set by the organization. For example, a machine operator even know how the function of a machine, so these operators have brilliant ideas on how to repair a machine is either purchase a new high-tech or otherwise. This is very profitable organization in the future.
      This technique refers to the leader's competence to persuade their subordinates to perform a task. Already a human instinct to avoid doing a task. To achieve the goals of the organization leader should impose a logical argument and clear evidence to persuade subordinates to achieve the goals of the organization. This technique requires a leader that has the properties of trustworthy and speaking skills. For example, when an organization is submitting a proposal and work repairer existing task so that better quality, leaders need to persuade their subordinates so that organizational goals can be delivered more effectively.
     This technique refers to the behavior of a leader to do well with his subordinates, so they are more in price. Technique can manipulate his subordinates to be more motivated. For example, the leader tells subordinates entitled third of these having a good comb and disciplined. When a person has believed in their leader, then this technique is considered effective.
       If the instructions are not complied with by the leaders subordinates then use threats and intimidation, and behavioral warning call to do. This method is the last method once used. This condition has been happening when subordinates do not follow instructions from the leader. In timely when a clerk is not doing its job, then the threats to be done to ensure that these subordinates come in time. Likewise with the workers come late at work and often repeat the offense, then this pressure technique should be done, such as layoffs
        Exchange technique refers to the situation where the leader made ​​an offer rewards to their subordinates. Directly or indirectly to a person to do the work requested by the leader. And subordinates will observe and opine that the leader has the power to reward that will be profitable for him. For example when people ask which leader do overtime, then subordinates will follow the direction as offered reward money for overtime. Finance is the basic requirement needed by subordinates.

       The turning point to advance the effectiveness of an organization depends on the management of a leader. Competitive leaders will ALWAYS follow the procedures proactive behavior. According to Fred E. Fielder (1965) has identified factors in the work environment that influence the effectiveness of a leader include:
- The relationship between leaders and subordinates. A leader does not need to use   legal powers if the subordinates respect him as practice manager , skills , personality or the defined attributes . If instead managers should use formal authority to give instructions to perform a task.
 - The structure of the task is an important factor , if the tasks are structured steps or specific procedures to perform a task , it is easy for workers to understand what should be done. Managers also know what to do and is easy to measure employee performance. If there is any dispute, the parties may refer the manual work. If someone is more structured managers have more power. If whether any job is not structured in the role played by members of the group are overlapping and misunderstanding of a directive may occur. Thus the power of the managers are very hard to control the structured task.
 - Position or power manager in the organization hierarchy is the third factor . Managing director of an organization has the power and influence against the chairman of a committee that has limited power over its members. As known to a high position in the hierarchy of organizational power and influence more pleasing task group members.
Many questions we often ask about a leader as:
Does increased organizational performance?
Does the organization's goals been achieved?
Are the chances the organization will thrive?
Does the organization will be bigger?
Are organizations more competitive with the upcoming challenges?
Are people satisfied subordinates?
Are organizations more committed on goal?
How long does the leader can stand in their position?
       Leaders competitive and practice ethics and proper management procedures will provide motivation and add followers in an organization. Thus the task of managing the work will be easy. The power of a leader allows it to control the subordinates with the organization to develop its own mold. Structured tasks and position of strong and weak power depends on the know-how to control his subordinate leaders to norms and objectives can be achieved together with subordinates. Leaders need ideas, will power, planning and followed the initiative and support of subordinates for realizing the objectives of the organization. Leaders under pressure will not waste time and money in the development of the survey organization. There are 5 levels of down line need to be dealt with by the leaders to become good leader.
          These are the basic requirements needed by subordinates such as eating, sleeping, and living quarters. If any one of these requirements cannot be met, it will influence the direction of the current focus subordinates carry out a job or task. A proactive leader will try to provide these requirements to the subordinates. For example, women workers who work night shifts or who are outside the area, the leader will need to discuss with the top management or leadership 1 so that this issue can be resolved. This is because if the leader can provide for the needs of subordinates, they felt themselves to be more appreciated.
      Included in this requirement is personal security, financial security, health and not be a victim of abuse. Each subordinate would feel safer if they kept themselves either financially, health or so on. For example, consideration will be given to subordinates in their work. Similarly, workplace safety subordinates must be provided medical insurance. Leaders need to provide these requirements to the production of an organization's productivity will increase. This is because the subordinates would feel safer with these requirements is provided.
       This is a human need to be loved and to love and feel the sense of 'belonging'. All subordinates must feel that they are needed and have the distinctive role within the organization. If met, feelings of tension and stress (stress) among employees can be reduced. Give a chance to subordinates to pinpoint their ideas in any discussion. Sensitive leader will always member chance discussion with subordinates do they feel they need for each other.
       This requirement is related to the need for workers to be respected and given the opportunity to honor others. Give them a job that could give them a chance to contribute. This will increase the `` Respect yourself'' (self-esteem). For example, give a chance to subordinates to become chairman of a discussion. This allows them respected by others and appreciated by the leaders. Industry in the junior-junior interior design interior designer will be given the opportunity to do a presentation of the project to the client. This is to enhance their self-skills while giving them a sense of themselves respected by customers and management.
      This requirement relates to the need to achieve the ideals of self by someone potential employees. The need to evolve themselves to provide lasting motivation. Including the need is the opportunity to use creative ability solve problems and suffered a moral activity. This also is the need psychological. The methods used in carrying out scientific research in the selection, training and development per employee. In this way can increase the productivity of subordinates. Performance of the employee is 


      From the intensity and evaluation, I found a strategic planning leaders organize to address this problem subordinates. Managers respected by his subordinates, and to contribute to the development of an organization is a leader. While a manager who only manage ordinary things cannot be called leaders. This is because a leader is someone who is capable of dealing with the various problems that come up and be able to control the situation and the state of his or organizations. The higher the relationship between leaders and subordinates fewer tasks to do. This means that leaders who can establish a good relationship between a subordinate will get help from the people underneath. Willingness of subordinates carry out duties as directed by leaders relies on this communication. Sometimes the tasks that do not need direction from leaders, subordinates as able and happy to do the job.
.    While the lack of communication between leaders and subordinates make more strenuous and difficult task to do. This is because of a bad relationship will give rise to dissatisfaction and not obey the command of the leader. Be a difficult task to do. Coercion theories should be done by the leaders. Know about 'strategic planning' is very important for someone who was called leaders. This is because it would be an indication to the leader and his subordinates to make decisions and implement decisions. Vision and mission of the organization easy to achieve. Leading organizations in Malaysia such as Haj Fund, plus, UEM, Sunway, Naza Motor, Produa and many more have leaders who can adapt `strategic planning 'good. Can control their subordinates so perfect anymore. There is no confusion in directing subordinates to achieve the vision and mission of their organization. Leaders - leaders have leadership norms and respected by their subordinates. What a great thing all the leaders of the organization have. The leader should create their own visions and join forces with subordinates to achieve the vision. A leader should have the quality and productivity.
    Quality in terms of education and work procedures. If leaders have these qualities subordinates would love to follow and make examples discretion to motivate them. Productivity restoration should be a leader. This is because the productive leader to be received by subordinates and organizations. So obviously be a leader who can be accepted by subordinates is a charismatic leader and could contribute to the organization and subordinates. POLC understanding of the concept of a leader is very important. Features planning, Organization, Leadership and Control are the characteristics of an effective leader. Know to plan, organize an organization, leading and controlling subordinates, will make the organization successful in the future. In essence, the leaders lead and lag. Leadership is a vital force behind the success of the organization and the organization cannot succeed without an effective leader. The successful leader is a leader who is very competitive and always concerned about his subordinates and organizational goals can be achieved.

Sumber : my MBA assignment (leadership in organization) al-quran and al sunah ,Jerald & Robert A. Baron (19931 Behavior ln Orgcmkution, 4th. Edition. Allyn 8, Bacon: Boston,Komunikasi antara budaya, L.E Sarbaugh – dewan bahasa dan pustaka

Tiada ulasan: