zpCUbhkAlqAxZqsAqVw3Z_Q0I18 Sumber Perkongsian Ilmu ©: NORMATIVE THEORIES OF ETHICSgoogle0d30047a50102498.html

Sabtu, 8 Mac 2014




Only when we act from duty that our actions have moral worth
Good will- "will" - human capacity to act from principle  
When we act out of feeling, inclination, or self-interest, our action do not have moral worth

Example : Act of shopkeeper returning the extra cash

The Categorical Imperative
An act is our morally right only if we will the principle of our action to become a universal law.

Example : A law that allowed promised breaking would contradict the very nature of a promise.

A law that allowed lying would contradict the very nature of serious communication.

(i) Universal Acceptability
The moral rule that we obey are not imposed on us from the outside. they are self-imposed and self-recognized. Fully internalized principles.

To see whether  rule or principle is a moral law - ask if the rule would be acceptable to all rational beings acting rationally.

The test of the morality of a rule is not whether people in fact accept it but whether all national being thinking rationally would accept it regardless of whether they are the doers or the receivers of the actions.

(ii) Humanity as an end, Never as Merely a Means
Every human being should treat everyone the way they themselves would want to be treated.

Kant In An Organizational Context
Application for organization:

(i) Categorical imperative provided firm rules to follow in moral decision-making, rules that do not depend on circumstances or results and do not permit individual exceptions.
Example ; lying exposing uninformed workers to the risk of lung diseases could not be justified to advance medical knowledge. 

(ii) Kant introduces a humanistic dimension into business decisions - business organizations involve human beings working to provide goods and services

(iii) It stresses the importance of motivation and of acting on principle

Sometimes when individuals and organizations believe that an action promotes  not only their own interests but those as well, they are actually rationalizing - doing what is best for themselves and only imagining that somehow it will promote happiness in general.

Critical Inquiries of Kant`s Ethics
1) What has moral worth?
Kant`s view is too restrictive - emphasize on the
Example : A clerk return RM10 extra change to customer

If motivated by self interest, to show that he or she is honest - no moral worth
If out of habit or sympathy - no moral worth
If out of sense a sense of duty - has moral worth

2) Is the categorical imperative an adequate test of right?
Kant said that a moral rule must function without exception
Kant universalization formula can be interpreted flexibly enough to meet commonsense objections.
Example : never steal except starving
                Stealing is wrong EXCEPT when hungry is all right

3) What does it means to treat people as means?
Individuals considered as ends not as means
Example : Prostitution is immoral because, by selling their sexual services, prositutes allow themselves to be treated as means
Anyone who works for a wage - treated as means


A prime facie obligation is an obligation that can be overridden by a more important obligation

Example : Keeping of promises is morally important, however under certain circumstances, for example, when a life is at stake - it would be morally permissible to break a promise.

Prime Facia obligations could be divided into seven basic types:
1- Duties of fidelity
2- Duties of compensation (for previous wrongful acts)
3- Duties of gratitude
4- Duties of justice
5- Duty of beneficence (that is, to make conditions of other betters)
6- Duties of self-improvement
7- Duties not to injure others


We have a stronger duty not to violate people`s right or injure them that we do to assist people.
Assisting others is good, such as volunteering at the orphanage - bring many children happiness but do we have time for this.

A right is an entitlement to act or have other act in a certain way
Example: If you claim a right to drive, others have a duty to permit you to drive

Moral rights, which are not the results of special relationship, are called human rights. 

Characteristic of human rights:
- Universal
- Equal right
- Not transferable
- Natural Rights


1) Moral decision - making involves the weighing of different moral factors an considerations

2) Acknowledges that the organization has its own legitimate goals to pursue - there are limits to the demands of morality and an organization that fulfills its morally free to advance whatever ends it has.

3) Organization must consider carefully how its actions will impinge on the rights of individuals -not just the rights of its members, such as stockholders and employees, but also the rights of others such us consumers.

Critical Inquiries of Nonconsequentialism

1) How well justified are these nonconsequentialist principles and moral right?
2) Can nonconsequentials satisfactorily handle conflicting rights and principles?

Example : Medical care and taxes in a welfare state Limiting property rights

Maintains that the proper principles of right and wrong are those that would maximize happiness if society adopted them

The adoption of moral principles that guide individual action.


Concern  common to most ethical systems: 
a) Obligations
Every significant human action- personal and professional , arises in the context of human relationships.
These relationships can be the source of specific duties and right

b) Ideal
An ideal is some morally important goal, virtue, or nation if excellence worth striving for.
Different cultures impart different ideals
example : tolerance, loyalty fairness

c) Effects of actions
When reflecting on a possible course of action, one needs to take into accounts its likely results.

d) Guidelines when handling cases of conflicting 
Obligations, ideals and effects:
1) When two or more moral obligations conflict, choose the stronger one.
2) When two or more ideals conflict, honor the more important one.
3) When rival actions will have different results choose the actions that produces the greater good

Sumber : business ethic ( willian H shaw)

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